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Year : 2012  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 49-54

Complicated falciparum Malaria in western Maharashtra

Department of Medicine, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences University (KIMSU), Dhebewadi Road, Karad Dist: Satara, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
V C Patil
Department of Medicine, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences University, Dhebewadi Road, Karad Dist: Satara, Maharashtra - 415 110
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2229-5070.97240

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Background: Complicated falciparum malaria remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a syndrome and a disease of protean clinical manifestations. All cases of falciparum malaria are potentially severe and life threatening, especially when managed inappropriately. Aim: The aim of the present study is to study clinical presentation and complications of patients with complicated P. falciparum malaria and its outcome. Settings and Design: This was retrospective observational study, conducted at tertiary care center in western Maharashtra from January 2011 to December 2011. Materials and Methods: Total 47 patients fulfilling criterion of complicated malaria due to P. falciparum who presented with fever having positive trophozoites of P. falciparum in blood smear were included in this study. Statistical analysis was done by EPI Info 6 statistical software. Results and Conclusion: A total 47 patients had smear positive complicated P. falciparum malaria with 39 were male and 8 were female patients. Total three (6.38%) patients had hypoglycemia at the time of admission. Total 29 (61.70%) patients had jaundice of which 20 were with anemia. Total 22 (46.80%) had anemia of which 20 were with jaundice. Total 6 (12.76%) had cerebral malaria, 6 (12.76%) had acute renal failure (ARF), 5 (10.63%) had acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and 1 (2.12%) had thrombocytopenia. Total 26 patients had single complication in the form of cerebral malaria 6 (12.76%), jaundice 9 (19.14%), ARF 5 (10.63%), ARDS 4 (8.51%) and anemia 2 (4.25%). Total 20 patients had two complications in the form of jaundice with anemia 20 (42.55%). One (2.12%) patient had four complications in the form of cerebral malaria with ARF with ARDS with thrombocytopenia with 100% mortality. Overall case fatality rate was 10.63% (5/47). The case fatality rate for isolated ARDS was 50% (2/4), with ARF was 20% (1/5) and with cerebral malaria it was 16.66% (1/6). Case fatality rate was highest in patients with ARDS compared to ARF and cerebral malaria with 'P' = 0.0221. Conclusions: In present study most common presentation was jaundice and anemia. Cerebral malaria, ARF and ARDS were uncommon presentation. Overall case fatality rate of complicated P. falciparum malaria was 10.63%. The case fatality rate was highest with multi-organ dysfunction (100%). This study highlights the significant burden of P. falciparum complicated malaria with isolated complication like ARDS with high mortality rate of 50% in present population.

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