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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 23-28

Management of granulomatous amebic encephalitis: Laboratory diagnosis and treatment

1 Department of Microbiology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, India
2 Department of General Medicine, Coimbatore Medical College Hospital, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Subhash Chandra Parija
Prof. Subhash Chandra Parija, Dean - Research, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Dhanvantri Nagar, Gorimedu, Puducherry - 605 006
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2229-5070.149889

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Granulomatous amebic encephalitis is a life-threatening central nervous system (CNS) infection caused by the free-living amoebae Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris and Sappinia pedata. The disease has a subacute to chronic onset affecting commonly the immunocompromised population with high mortality rate. The diagnosis of this disease entity requires high suspicion with appropriate sample collection and testing by the laboratory experts. Radiological investigations are nonspecific and commonly confused with CNS tuberculosis, neurocysticercosis, disseminated encephalomyelitis, viral encephalitis etc., delaying the accurate diagnosis of these cases. Early diagnosis plays a crucial role in the survival of these cases since appropriate management can be initiated. No single drug is effective; hence multiple antibiotics targeting various proteins or receptors are required for successful treatment. A combination of surgical and medical interventions involving multiple specialty experts is required to prevent death and morbidity in survivors.

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