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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 69-77

Detection of chloroquine and artemisinin resistance molecular markers in Plasmodium falciparum: A hospital based study

1 Department of Microbiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, India
2 Department of Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, India
3 Department of Paediatrics, Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, India

Correspondence Address:
Subhash Chandra Parija
Department of Microbiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Post-Graduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2229-5070.175110

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Introduction: Emergence of chloroquine (CQ) resistance in Plasmodium falciparum has increased the morbidity and mortality of falciparum malaria worldwide. Artemisinin-based combination therapies are now recommended by the World Health Organization as the first line treatment for falciparum malaria. Numerous molecular markers have been implicated in the CQ and artemisinin resistance. Materials and Methods: A total of 26 confirmed cases of falciparum malaria (by giemsa stained thick and thin smear, quantitative buffy coat, immunochromatographic test, or polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) were included in the study. About 5 ml of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid blood sample was collected and stored at –20°C till use. Plasmodium DNA was extracted using QIAamp whole blood DNA extraction kit. PCR was done to amplify pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfserca, and pfmrp1 genes and the amplicons obtained were sequenced by Macrogen, Inc., Korea. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis was done using Bio-Edit Sequence Alignment Editor. Results: Out of the four genes targeted, we noted a SNP in the pfcrt gene alone. This SNP (G > T) was noted in the 658 th position of the gene, which was seen in 13 patients. The pfmdr1 and pfserca genes were present in 9 and 14 patients respectively. But we could not find any SNPs in these genes. This SNP in pfcrt gene was not significantly associated with any adverse outcome and neither altered disease progression. Conclusion: Presence of a single SNP may not be associated with any adverse clinical outcome. As the sample size was small, we may have not been able to detect any other known or unknown polymorphisms.

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