Home Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
Users Online: 200
Home | About us | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current issue | Archives | Submit article | Instructions | Subscribe | Contacts | Login 

 Table of Contents  
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 130-131  

Sparganum in frog meat: A warning for the occurrence of human sparganosis

1 Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
2 Department of Reproduction, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia

Date of Acceptance03-Jun-2019
Date of Web Publication18-Sep-2019

Correspondence Address:
R Heru Prasetyo
Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Jl. Prof. Dr. Mustopo 47, Surabaya 60131
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/tp.TP_64_18

Rights and Permissions

How to cite this article:
Prasetyo R H, Safitri E. Sparganum in frog meat: A warning for the occurrence of human sparganosis. Trop Parasitol 2019;9:130-1

How to cite this URL:
Prasetyo R H, Safitri E. Sparganum in frog meat: A warning for the occurrence of human sparganosis. Trop Parasitol [serial online] 2019 [cited 2022 Dec 3];9:130-1. Available from: https://www.tropicalparasitology.org/text.asp?2019/9/2/130/267142


In a good number of regions, human sparganosis has become a major local public health inconsistency associated with the consumption of dietary raw frog meat. It has been sporadically reported across the globe, with predominantly higher occurrence in China, Thailand, South Korea, and Japan.[1] Sparganosis is a parasitic zoonosis brought about by infection with sparganum, a larvae of Diphyllobothrium mansoni, and belonging to the genus Spirometra.[2],[3]D. mansoni, also known as Spirometra erinacei, is a tapeworm (host) usually found in dogs and cats. Its life cycle comprises of two intermediate host, with freshwater copepods being the first, whereas reptiles, amphibians, and some mammals being the second intermediate host.[4] In frog, it is acquired by ingesting copepods infected with procercoids into its larvae. The procercoid larva pierces the gut wall, moves to the muscle or migrates with the subcutaneous tissue, and grows into the sparganum larvae. Most sparganum are located in the muscles of hind legs, abdominal wall, fore legs, and back of frogs.[4] Sparganum can easily infect humans through ingestion of raw or not properly processed meat of frogs infected with sparganum.[4],[5],[6],[7]

In this research, we report a case of sparganosis in frog meat purchased from a local market in Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia. Six of these pieces of meat were examined, with one illustrating irregularity and the presence of edematous hyperemia in its right hind leg, which indicates the possibility of a parasitic organism [Figure 1]a. We carried out surgery on the mass and discovered a wrinkled, whitish, ribbon-shaped, unsegmented organism of 2 mm width and 5 cm long which was confirmed as sparganum [Figure 1]b, [Figure 1]C, [Figure 1]d. Although human sparganosis has never been reported in Surabaya, Indonesia, its discovery in traded frog meat should be a warning for possible occurrence in humans. Therefore, it is imperative to create adequate awareness for the public to eat safe and properly processed foods.
Figure 1: Frog meat containing sparganum. (a) The arrow points to an irregular nodule, accompained by edema and hyperemia in the right hind legs, suspecious the location of the parasite. (b-d) Sparganum that has been removed from frog meat is characterized by wrinkled, whitish, ribbon-shaped, and unsegmented organism (arrow), 2 mm wide and 5 cm long. Frog meat and sparganum fixed in 10% formalin

Click here to view


The authors are grateful to the frog meat seller for permitting us to publish this case.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

   References Top

Li MW, Song HQ, Li C, Lin HY, Xie WT, Lin RQ, et al. Sparganosis in mainland China. Int J Infect Dis 2011;15:e154-6.  Back to cited text no. 1
Li MW, Lin HY, Xie WT, Gao MJ, Huang ZW, Wu JP, et al. Enzootic sparganosis in Guangdong, people's Republic of China. Emerg Infect Dis 2009;15:1317-8.  Back to cited text no. 2
Margono SS, Sutjahyono RW, Kurniawan A, Nakao M, Mulyani T, Wandra T, et al. Diphyllobothriasis and sparganosis in Indonesia. Trop Med Health 2007;35:301-5.  Back to cited text no. 3
Liu Q, Li MW, Wang ZD, Zhao GH, Zhu XQ. Human sparganosis, a neglected food borne zoonosis. Lancet Infect Dis 2015;15:1226-35.  Back to cited text no. 4
Ou Q, Li SJ, Cheng XJ. Cerebral sparganosis: A case report. Biosci Trends 2010;4:145-7.  Back to cited text no. 5
Vitta A, Srisawangwong T, Sithithaworn P, Laha T, Tesana S. Laboratory production and maintenance of Spirometra erinacei spargana. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2004;35:280-3.  Back to cited text no. 6
Anantaphruti MT, Nawa Y, Vanvanitchai Y. Human sparganosis in Thailand: An overview. Acta Trop 2011;118:171-6.  Back to cited text no. 7


  [Figure 1]

This article has been cited by
1 Sparganosis (Spirometra spp.) in Asian Water Monitor (Varanus salvator): A medical implications for veterinarians, breeders, and consumers
Aditya Yudhana,Ratih Novita Praja,Anjani Marisa Kartikasari
Veterinary World. 2021; : 2482
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Microbial links to noninfectious diseases: The way forward
SubhashChandra Parija
Tropical Parasitology. 2019; 9(2): 69
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  In this article
    Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded17    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 2    

Recommend this journal