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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 102-108

Risk factors for placental malaria and associated low birth weight in a rural high malaria transmission setting of Cote d'Ivoire

1 Department of Malariology, Pasteur Institute of CÔte d'Ivoire, Cote d'Ivoire, CÔte d'Ivoire
2 Pediatric Department, General Hospital of Ayame Catholic Mission, Cote d'Ivoire
3 Department of Malariology, Pasteur Institute of CÔte d'Ivoire, Cote d'Ivoire; Pasteur Institute of Paris France

Correspondence Address:
Offianan Andre Toure
Department of Malariology, Pasteur Institute of Cote d'Ivoire P.O. Box 490 Abidjan 01
CÔte d'Ivoire
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/tp.TP_58_19

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Background: Placental malaria (PM) is associated with increased risk of both maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess risks factors associated with PM including intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Ayame hospital in the southern region of Cote d'Ivoire between August 2016 and March 2017. Sociodemographic baseline characteristic and antenatal data were obtained from the mother's antenatal card and included timing and number of IPTp-SP doses. Newborn characteristics were recorded. Peripheral blood as well as placental and cord blood were used to prepare thick and thin blood films. In addition, pieces of placental tissues were used to prepare impression smears. Regression logistics were used to study factors associated with PM and low birth weight (LBW) (<2.500 g). Results: Three hundred delivered women were enrolled in the study. The mean age of the participants was 25 ± 6.5 years and most participants were multigravida (52.8%). The coverage rate of IPTp-SP with the full three doses recommended was 27.8%. Overall, 7.3% (22/300) of women examined had PM detected by microscopy using impression smear (22/300). Multivariate analysis showed that significant risks factors of PM were maternal peripheral parasitemia at delivery (P < 0.0001), residence (P = 0.03), and not sleeping under long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) (P = 0.006). LBW infants were born to 22.7% (5/22) of women with PM and 13.3% (37/278) of women without PM (P = 0.47). Only primiparous was associated with LBW in the multivariable analysis (P = 0.04). Conclusion: The prevalence of PM was 7.3%. Low parity, residence and not using LLINs and maternal peripheral parasitemia were identified as risks factors. PM was associated with LBW. Implementation of IPTp-SP should be improved by the National Malaria Control Program in rural settings.

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