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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 41-47

Comparison of gdh polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and tpi assemblage-specific primers for characterization of Giardia intestinalis in children


1 Department of Parasitology, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
2 Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
3 Department of Radiation Sciences, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Heba Elhadad
165 El-Horreya Avenue, El-Hadra, Alexandria, POB: 21561
Egypt
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/tp.tp_28_21

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Background: Giardia is a diarrheagenic eukaryotic parasite that consists of at least eight morphologically identical but genetically distinct genotypes. Human giardiasis is caused mainly by A and B assemblages. Aim and objectives: The study aimed to compare the performance of gdh polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and tpi assemblage-specific primers in genotyping of G. intestinalis. Materials and Methods: Stool samples of 315 children were microscopically screened for G. intestinalis. Positive samples were genotyped using tpi assemblage-specific primers and gdh semi-nested PCR-RFLP techniques. Results: The prevalence of Giardia was 18.1%. The detected genotypes using tpi and gdh approaches were assemblage A (15.8% vs. 12.7%) and assemblage B (36.8% vs. 74.5%) as single infections and mixed assemblages A and B (47.4% vs. 12.7%). The two approaches showed a moderate agreement (kappa index = 0.413, P < 0.001). PCR-RFLP of gdh gene revealed that sub-assemblages BIII and BIV were equally detected (30.9% each). The remaining samples were equally divided between sub-assemblage AII, mixed BIII and BIV, and mixed AII and BIII (12.7% each). A significant association was detected between the retrieved sub-assemblages and the presence of symptoms. Conclusions: Although both approaches confirmed the predominance of assemblage B, the use of assemblage-specific primers is more effective in elucidating the true picture of mixed assemblage infection.


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